Water pollution is defined as the penetration of foreign substances into groundwater or surface water, like rivers, lakes, oceans, etc., that alter or limit the function of water in the ecosystem. The implications responsible for water pollution vary, including microorganisms, chemicals, radioactive materials, or even heat.
Illnesses caused by water pollution
Many water pollutants cause human infection with different kinds of illnesses. Wastewater is the primary source of materials that cause water pollution, as wastewater contains pathogenic agents and organic matter. That organic matter causes damage to water because bacteria break it down in wastewater, resulting in a significant decrease in dissolved oxygen in water, thus altering the properties of water in lakes and rivers and toxic substances polluting the water. Such as lead, mercury, pesticides, and other causes of cancer and congenital abnormalities in humans.
Symptoms of exposure to contaminated water
Diarrhea is one of the symptoms associated with pathogens entering the digestive tract, and the majority of these illnesses affect humans through contaminated drinking water or sewage disposal. Polluted water, or poor wastewater management worldwide, causes many intestinal diseases that lead to diarrhea, which in turn leads to malnutrition and weight loss, especially in children. Half of the malnutrition cases are linked to diseases caused by water pollution, noting that diarrheal-related infections lead to the death of one and a half million people each year, the majority of whom are children, while the number of deaths is estimated; Due to malnutrition associated with water pollution, about 860,000 deaths annually. Illnesses resulting from water pollution and causing diarrhea include:
● Elephant disease: Water pollution accounts for 66% of elephantiasis cases, or the so-called lymphatic filariasis, where humans are exposed to this disease following exposure to mosquito bites that transport and transmit it to the blood mosquitoes reproduce in environments where there is water contaminated by organic matter. The lymphatic system is affected by this infection, and children may develop it without signs of illness. The symptoms start to appear in the final stages of the patient’s life as abnormally swollen parts of the human body, pain, and motor impairment in the affected person, and chemotherapy is used to limit the spread of the disease and exacerbation.
● Trachoma: Water pollution is a significant contributor to trachoma disease, as the incidence of bacterial infection at the origin of the disease increases in areas where drinking water for personal use is scarce, and infection by this bacteria leads to the susceptibility of the eye initially, then swelling and discharge of pus It can also cause blindness if the patient does not undergo proper treatment which usually involves taking antibiotics or undergoing surgery in advanced stages, and prevention methods focus on the presence of clean water, Wash the face with it constantly, and also includes good management of wastewater and waste to prevent water pollution and the spread of bacteria responsible for trachoma in it.
● Legionnaires’ disease: is a type of bacterial pneumonia that affects humans by inhaling steam or mist of water contaminated with infectious bacteria, and the person suffering from this infection suffers from high fever, cough, headache, and bodily pain.
● Cryptosporidiosis: is caused by a microscopic parasite called Cryptosporidium that causes diarrhea. The pest in many respects, the most famous of which is drinking water and leisure water.