The human body is a very complex biochemical organism, finely regulated and highly adaptable. It contains numerous biological regulation systems to ensure that organs operate correctly in response to external conditions.
When internal conditions like disease or poisoning cannot be changed by normal mechanisms, signs of discomfort appear on the body. signs and symptoms depend on the type of stress the body has been subjected to. Because there are many complex interrelations between systems inside the body, a single change in one system can lead to many effects in other systems.
The balance of the body may be affected by physical, chemical, and/or biological factors which exert stress on the body. The body’s response to prolonged stress depends on the nature of the factor, the degree, and the length of the stress. When the stress is too intense or too long, and the balance cannot be sustained or restored, the illness occurs. Chemical poisoning is nothing but a chemically induced disease, and the symptoms of chemical intoxication are often the same as those caused by biological agents like bacteria or viruses. To better understand how the disease is caused by exposure to toxic chemicals, we first need to understand how toxins function in the body.
How do toxins operate inside the body?
Toxins work by changing the speed of different body functions, increasing them (e.g., increasing heart rate or sweating), or reducing them (sometimes to a point where they stop completely, like breathing). Persons who have been poisoned by parathion (an insecticide) can experience increased sweating. Excessive sweating can lead to enzymatic biochemical inactivation. This biochemical change causes cell alteration (increased nervous activity). Next, cell change is responsible for physiological changes, which are symptoms of toxicity that occur or are felt in some organs (sweat glands). The primary evolution of biochemical, intracellular, and physiologic effects occurs in most cases of intoxication. According to the specific biochemical mechanism of action, the toxin can have generalized effects throughout the body or may cause a very limited change in the physiological operation of a particular region or organ.
Toxicity is a general term for the adverse effects of toxins. These adverse effects can range from mild symptoms such as headache or nausea to severe symptoms such as commas, convulsions, and death. Toxicity is usually divided into four types, depending on the number of exposures to the toxin and the amount of time it takes to develop toxic symptoms. The two types that are commonly mentioned are acute and chronic. Acute toxicity results from short-term exposure and occurs within a relatively short time, whereas chronic toxicity resulting from long-term exposure and its symptoms take longer to develop.
General toxicity categories and their symptoms
1-Respiratory( nose, trachea, lungs)
Common symptoms: irritation, cough, choking, chest tightness.
Common symptoms: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
Common symptoms: backache, urinating more or less than normal.
4-Neurological(brain, spinal cord)
Common symptoms: headache, dizziness, behavioral problems, depression, coma, seizures.
Common symptoms: anemia (tiredness, weakness)
Common symptoms: eruptions, itchiness, redness, swelling.
Common symptoms: fetus infertility, miscarriage