The word nausea is derived from the Greek ναυσία – nausea, also known as motion sickness, it is a digestive system disease where the patient experiences discomfort in the chest, upper abdominal area or back of the throat frequently followed by an urge to throw up. Although it is not painful, it becomes exhausting if it lasts for an extended period.
symptoms are nonspecific and there are many possible causes of nausea such as:
Infections and digestive problems, alimentary intoxication and pregnancy. It can also be a side effect of many medicines, including chemotherapy as it may be purely psychological.
Infections and disorders of the digestive system (37%): Are some of the more frequent causes of severe nausea and vomiting. Chronic nausea can be the primary symptom of many digestive problems like gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, gastritis and paraparesis, cholestatic reflux, peptic ulcers, celiac disease, gluten sensitivity, Crohn’s disease, upper gastrointestinal malignancies, and pancreatic cancer.
Food poisoning: generally causes a sudden appearance of nausea and vomiting after 1 to 6 hours of contaminated food and it goes on for one to two days, because of the toxins produced by the bacteria in the food.
Pregnancy: “Morning sickness” is common in early pregnancy but sometimes continues in the second and third trimesters. In the first trimester of pregnancy, about 80% of women experience nausea due to sexual activity and childbearing age. At times it is mild and limited, but serious cases called gestational vomiting may require treatment.
Side effects of some medications (3%): Many medications can cause nausea, such as cytotoxic chemotherapy for cancer and general anaesthetics. Treatment of migraine, ergotamine also causes devastating nausea in certain patients. in fact, First-time users are required to use antiemetics.
Nausea can be due to depression, anxiety disorders or eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa.
And there are plenty of other reasons, such as Blockage of the exit of the stomach, small intestine or colon, superior mesenteric artery syndrome, viral infection, cholecystitis and appendicitis, irritable bowel syndrome and periodic vomiting, Cirrhosis … etc.
Yet, Nausea and vomiting remain undiagnosed in 10% of cases
Treatment: Severe vomiting causes fluid loss in the body and hence dehydration, and in this case, it is preferable to use an electrolytic solution orally. If this is not effective, intravenous dehydration may be necessary. Medical treatment is recommended if the person can hold no fluid, or has a fever, stomach pain and vomiting repeatedly daily or no urination for more than 8 hours.
There is no clear agreement on specific medication, but the selection of antiemetic drugs such as promethazine, metoclopramide and ondansetron are the most common in the United States, may vary from person to person depending on how nauseous they are. For those suffering from motion sickness, antihistamines and anticholinergics such as meclizine and scopolamine are especially effective. Nausea and vomiting associated with migraines are more responsive to dopamine antagonists such as metoclopramide, prochlorperazine and chlorpromazine. When it comes to gastroenteritis, serotonin antagonists, such as ondansetron, are used to reduce vomiting and the need for intravenous resuscitation. In case of pregnancy nausea, an association of pyridoxine and doxylamine is prescribed.